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Employed methods

Dark field

The remote dark field methods can be used both with a spectrometer in order to acquire the spectral scattering signature from insects from UV to NIR, or it can be used with a multiband or quadrant photodiode to collect the insects modulation spectrum. The dark field method is an inexpensive substitute for LIDAR, without having to purchase expensive kHz lasers at new wavelength, one can explore the properties of atmospheric fauna, using the sunlight on clear days. Spectrally resolving dark field can be combined with insect powder marking. KHz modulation detection with quadrants can be used to evaluate insect interaction and flight directions. The experiment can be reproduced with instrumentation less than two thousand euros.

LIDAR or laser radar

LIght Dectection And Ranging, resembles radar and sonar but exploits light. LIDAR both detect the back and forward scattered magnitude as well as the range. LIDAR varies in complexity where the simples have one color and detects backscattered light, others have multiband, several polarizations or retrieve fluorescence or Raman signals. Thanks to the recent development of inexpensive photonic components such as CCD and laser diodes, LIDAR can be constructed at very low cost compared to RADARs, LIDARs are also much easier to reconfigure and successively add more bands and polarization modes.
At LUMBO we have developed a special LIDAR technique bringing down the cost and weight a factor hundred, while achieving hundred times fast sampling rates.

Quadrant detection

LUMBO employs quadrants throughout the optical part of the electromagnetic spectrum. These devices serves as four pixel cameras sampling at tenth of kHz. They provide modulation signatures as well as flight direction. In an on going project where we aim to define spherical scattering phase functions for each overtone of the insects, quadrant detectors serves to break the symmetry.

Iridescence

Iridescence refers to the phenomenon where spectral signature of an object depends on the angle of observation and illumination. The reason for this is often mircoscopic or nanoscopic structures in the object. In relation to atmospheric fauna a particular curiosity is that the wing angle constantly scans it self, thus if one are able to pick up the color change during wingbeat one might infer sizes on the microscopic or nanoscopic level. This could for instance be wingmembrane thick for insects or barbule distance for birds.

Powder marking

Iridescence refers to the phenomenon where spectral signature of an object depends on the angle of observation and illumination. The reason for this is often mircoscopic or nanoscopic structures in the object. In relation to atmospheric fauna a particular curiosity is that the wing angle constantly scans it self, thus if one are able to pick up the color change during wingbeat one might infer sizes on the microscopic or nanoscopic level. This could for instance be wingmembrane thick for insects or barbule distance for birds.

Lunar obscuration

This method is based on a hi-speed camera tracking the full moon. When night migrating birds passes by at high altitude, the cross section is recorded as a function of time. Apart from providing accurate data on flight heading direction, an modulation spectrum is retrieved providing body size, wing size and frequency as well as strength and phases of a number of harmonics. These parameters will be used to distinguish classes and species.

Thermal emission

LUMBO employs an advanced thermal- and mid-infrared color quadrant detector for tracking and classification of birds. The installation is still in progress.

Page Manager:

Centre for Animal Movement Research
Evolutionary Ecology, Department of Biology
Ecology building S-223 62 Lund Sweden